About water purifiers

Identifying the characteristics of an ideal system in nature and comparing it with the real existing system in a given area for possible improvement is one of the research methods in research methodology. By comparing the characteristics of the ideal system with the characteristics of the existing / real system, it is possible to determine the search gap and do more research to improve the real world system.

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The four fundamental problems that still exist in society around the world are related to nutritious food, clean water, renewable energy and comfortable health. In this work we study the characteristics of the ideal water purifier, a hypothetical system used to convert contaminated water into pure water to solve drinking and irrigation water problems. The characteristics of the ideal water purification system are classified and discussed in four categories, such as input characteristics, system requirements, output characteristics, and environmental characteristics. In addition, the possibilities of making such a system using nanotechnology are also discussed. Nanotechnology is emerging as a new multidisciplinary science and technology frontier that is expected to solve many of humanity’s major problems / needs in society, including the provision of abundant drinking water, pure water for agriculture and plantations, availability of nutritious food for all, uninterrupted green energy for society and comfortable health for all. The document discusses the possibility of using nanotechnology to make the ideal water purifier using nanotechnology and also the advantages, benefits, limitations and disadvantages of said technology to improve that system towards the ideal system. Creation of new knowledge / New analysis and interpretation: the document generated new knowledge about the concept and characteristics of the ideal water purifier and analyzed and interpreted the possibility of realizing it using nanotechnology.
Water purifier infographic Source: Abhisek Behera

 

 

Evolution of purification techniques

Chlorination of water Source: Sourabh Phadke
Chlorination of water Source: Sourabh Phadke

One of the first methods of water purification was adding chlorine to the water. Chlorine releases hydrochloric acid, which reacts with microorganisms and kills them. However, due to its negative effect on health as well as its ineffectiveness in killing certain types of protozoa, this technique lost popularity, paving the way for other cleansing techniques.

All water purifiers have a water filter. There are six different types available:

 

Activated carbon filter Source: Sourabh Phadke
Activated carbon filter Source: Sourabh Phadke

 

 

Active carbon filter: This type of filter is used to purify soluble gases such as chlorine, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, ammonia and organic material such as dead algae, leaves or any other dead element that is washed in a body of water. The porous nature of carbon (charcoal) helps absorb chlorine and pollutants like pesticides. Generally, household carbon filters come with an activated silver coating that kills bacteria. (To read about the technology that uses indigenous carbon to produce activated carbon, click here)

 

Biosand filter Source: Sourabh Phadke
Biosand filter Source: Sourabh Phadke
Biosand filter: It is a concrete or plastic box that is filled with layers of sand and gravel, which eliminates pathogens (microorganisms in the water that make us sick) and solids in suspension from contaminated water. The water (it must be free of dangerous chemicals as the filter cannot remove most chemicals) is poured on top of the filter and collected in a secure storage container. Organisms that cause infections. Bacteria and other microorganisms grow in the top 2 cm of sand, which is called the biofilm. The microorganisms in the biofilm eat the pathogens in the water, thus improving the quality of the water. Removes suspended particles and pathogens and can filter 12 to 18 liters per batch.

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